Blueberry Feminised Seeds from Dutch Passion

Dutch Passion Seeds were among the oldest cannabis seeds bank which was established long back in 1987. The company’s reputation rests on the quality of its genetics and the reliability of its germination. The feminized seeds range of the company is most well known for its blue cannabis strains, such as the blueberry and the Blue Moonshine, and also for the White Widow, Passion #1, etc.

Dutch Passion was among the pioneers of the feminised cannabis seeds and their major breakthrough was in the advancement of the technology of seed breeding when they developed the feminized seeds. When the conditions are right, which mean that when the weather, temperature and other necessary conditions are perfect or on the verge of perfection, these feminised seeds only give rise to female plants. One needs to get to hold of selected clones to produce these. Under standard conditions of temperature and pressure, no male flowers are produced by these female clones. With the method, they also made a very significant discovery, that male flowers and pollens can be produced by cuttings. Special seeds are produced from the pollen so obtained. The company is one of the very companies that mention THC and CBD percentages of the strains that they produce in their catalogs.

Blueberry seeds produced by Dutch Passion are feminized cannabis seeds that produce a cannabis hybrid that that is highly dominant in Indica. These feminised seeds have won many a competition and is a high pedigree seed and is one of the firm favorites of those in the market. The original Blueberry is strain that mostly contains Indica (Its Indica content are nearly 80% with its Sativa content being only around 20%). The root of the seeds dates back to the later years of the 1970’s. Under optimum conditions, the plant is capable of generating a large amount of produce. The plant is very dense with a stout stature, and having red, blue and purple hues that concoct to form almost a lavender hue. The final product’s aroma is very fruity and tastes very much like blueberry (which is the reason for its name, along with the color).

The plant gives a high feeling that usually lasts for a very long time. One feels very relaxed, calm, composed and almost on the verge of a euphoric feeling. The size of the calyx varies from medium to large and the plant has an amazingly long shelf life. The plant is best suitable for growing indoors but has no problems whatsoever in growing outdoors as well and hence it is very unique in that respect. As said earlier, the type of the plant is mostly Indica, and is of medium or short stature. The THC level has been marked by the company at a very strong 20%. It takes around 8-10 weeks to flower, which is relatively on a higher level and yields around 500gms per m2 in a set of Sea of Green. The typical time for harvesting is during the 2nd and 3rd weeks of October.

Fort Bonifacio; Philippine Real Estate’s Next Prime Manila Property Investment Hub

Separated from the Philippines financial and business district as well as the most expensive strip of Philippine Real Estate, the prime location of Fort Bonifacio in Taguig, certainly has its own place under the sun. Unlike other properties in Manila, properties within Fort Bonifacio are the best alternative commercial spaces to the already congested and expensive Makati corporate neighborhood.

Fort Bonifacio is also an ideal option to the posh and exclusive subdivisions along the Makati Central Business District. With all the conveniences and comforts of most Manila Condominiums, Fort Bonifacio condo living offers a green community that most young professionals and businessmen appreciate and aspire for.

Fort Bonifacio compromises 25 square kilometers of land which was previously home to the Armed Forces of the Philippines. Due to its proximity to Makati CBD, its worth eventually became more as a property investment hub rather than a military base.  

Today, Fort Bonifacio is home to several high rise projects that can compete with the luxurious Manila Condos, apartments for sale in Manila and Manila houses. Prestigious schools, restaurants, shopping centers, commercial and recreational centers can also be found at Fort Bonifacio. A well equipped hospital and several planned embassies will also be put up in the Fort.

Aside from being an ideal alternative from the expensive and exclusive residential and commercial Manila property investments, Fort Bonifacio also prides a 22 million gallon water containment facility built underground. It catches the drainage runoff which is effective during storms which ensures every resident and commercial owner that Fort Bonifacio is flood free.

Electrical wires and cables lines have also been built underground offering every Fort Bonifacio condo resident a magnificent view of the breathtaking and awe-inspiring skylines of the Fort and Makati as well as the Ortigas and entire metro skylines.

Because, Fort Bonifacio offers great open spaces, residents can always put on their running shoes to keep their body fit and healthy. Fitness centers and gyms are also nearby. At Fort Bonifacio, anyone can live in a healthier environment while keeping the Central Business District nearby for ease and convenience; nearly everything is possible in the Fort.

Fort Bonifacio condo and other properties in the Fort are handled and managed by Umbrella Online- the best Philippine Realty firm licensed to broker properties in Manila, Manila house for sale, apartments in Manila, Manila rentals, Manila lots as well as Real Estate Makati and Fort Bonifacio condos.

For inquiries and more informations about Fort Bonifacio properties available for sale or rent visit http://umbrellaonline.com/pages/.

Makati City – Umbrella Real Estate’s Prime Philippine Realty Site

The City of Makati is one of the cities and municipalities that make up Metro Manila, the greater metropolitan area of the national capital region of the Philippines. It is the major financial, commercial and economic hub in the Philippines.

Makati City is referred as the financial capital of the Philippines since many global companies have their offices and headquarters in the city. Makati is also the home base of the influential Makati Business Club and the Philippine Stock Exchange. Ayala Avenue which runs through the heart of downtown Makati Central Business District is often called the Wall Street of the Philippines.

Makati is primarily a city for the condo dweller with its high-rise skyscrapers offering breathtaking views over Manila. Condo Makati living has become one of the most desirable and sought-after lifestyles in the Philippines.

Living in a Makati condo offers you the exhilaration and vibrancy of a chic, urban lifestyle together with all the advantages of living in the Central Business District of Metro Manila.

Would-be residents can find Makati house for sale, homes for sale in Manila and apartments in Manila in Umbrella Online Real Estate world class lists of Philippine Real Estate. Umbrella Online takes pride to represent and manage Manila houses, Manila homes and Manila condominiums that are settled within Makati CBD. Offering residents proximity to the city’s foremost shopping locales, boutique shops, fine dining restaurants and a number of entertainment facilities.

Makati City is the place where real estate soars and desires find new heights. To know more about the insight into the exclusivity, status and rewards of a prosperous Makati City urban lifestyle as well as for further information on Philippines hottest real estate in Makati visit http://umbrellaonline.com

Explore the new chapter of sydney

Discover in Sydney 

Are you the curious type, who always wants to learn and explore the new? For all of you, you might be aware that Sydney beyond its beautiful landscape, holds many mysterious places, which are weird as well. Many of them, despite being unusual, are loved by residents and also tourists. These places form the part of culture and values of Sydney as a city. 

One of the weird places you will find at the heart of Sydney CBD is The Mystery Puzzle. The puzzle rooms are the newest fad amongst Australians, and this place is weirdly best in what they do. The Mystery puzzle is the most popular place in Sydney, for their largest life size escape rooms, their trickiest puzzles and the themes they offer. This is the place for all those who loves the wackiness around, those who love the thrill and adventure that solving puzzles bring, and those who wants to strengthen their team bond and for those who just want to have fun. 

Puzzles of the Mystery Puzzle and the Race against Time 

This place holds three escape rooms in its premises, with two different themes – “The Great Bank Robbery” and “The Lost Pirate Soul”. A minimum of two persons and a maximum of twelve people are allowed inside a single puzzle room. And hence, a total of thirty-six people can be inside its three escape rooms at a time. Visitors will be locked inside the puzzle room of their choice the moment they step into it and will be given 60 minutes of time to escape from it, by solving the puzzles, riddles and the codes, and the mysteries inside the puzzles room. All the puzzles inside these escape rooms are the fiddliest in town and are developed uniquely, so that the puzzles can be solved within time only when the people inside work as a team in conjunction and put their brains together to solve them. This is the race against time in its literal terms, one has to chalk out their way by solving the mysteries and escape within 60 minutes. 

The Escape rooms of The Mystery Puzzle 

Besides being famous for its weird puzzles this place also sets an example on how to create the largest real life escape rooms. The Mystery Puzzle is the most innovative, creative and imaginative place in Sydney, and one realize it the moment they enter any of their puzzle room. All three escape rooms here are designed so artistically that it almost feels real inside them. They also provide theme matching flashy costumes to add on to the zing to the experience of escape room.

Christie Offices is an office rental company that provides Furnished Serviced Offices to set up offices

The Christie Conference Centre is a striking, high specification, modern building located in the heart of the CBD like Brisbane, Sydney, North Sydney & Cairns.  Whether you are planning a large science conference, small meeting, training session or seminar our range of modern facilities in a convenient location can meet your needs. Christie Conference Centre can provide a great environment for your company conferences, training and corporate meetings. Whether you’re planning a full day conference or a series of half-day seminars, we can provide you with an attractive, functional setting as well as all the technical and business support you need. We can offer premier facilities for around 250 delegates. We will configure the seating plan to your special requirements, including break-out sessions or computer labs, and help you choose the space with the appropriate capacity for your event.

Designed by Professionals for Meeting Professionals. Whether it’s a private one on one interview or a larger meeting, our friendly staff will be able to assist you in providing a professional setting, with the latest technology in a warm and inviting atmosphere. All our locations have numerous meeting rooms and facilities designed to suit any occasion. We make it our business to ensure that your meetings and conferences run smoothly by Featuring flexible room and seating configurations, state-of-the-art audiovisual technology, comfortable ergonomic chairs, high speed internet access, and non-glare lighting our meeting rooms are the perfect venue for meetings of 1 to 8(for larger rooms we have Christie Conference Centre). Additional benefits you’ll appreciate include individual room temperature controls, extra wide tables, 24-hour access to your conference room with individual key locking systems, and much more.

Christie project space can accommodate your needs from smallest to the largest projects with flexible floor plan. We provide you immediate office space as per your needs. We have a project space that requires short term accommodation.

Key Features:

  • Wide range of meeting facilities.
  • Choose from flexible floor plans.
  • Fully furnished spaces and ready to move in.
  • Ability to relocate if your needs change
  • Ready cabled and networked with telephones connected

Christie Virtual Office Services – for those in need of a business presence without the expense of traditional office space. Let us provide you with a professional image while you work from home, from another state or even another country. We offer professional and affordable Virtual Office Solutions with the most transparent price plans around. We can answer your phone and forward your calls, receive your mail and provide conference rooms for those times when you need to meet with a client. We have a range of prestigious Virtual offices at prime CBD locations like Brisbane, Sydney, Melbourne and North Sydney.  We have a Virtual Office package and range of Virtual Office services to suite everyone. We have created some simple packages based on the most popular virtual office requests, or you can tailor your very own virtual office solution from our range of services.

Houses for Sale in Herne Bay, Auckland

It’s a sanctuary in the city. Herne Bay is one of Auckland’s most prestigious suburbs. Located on the shores of the Waitemata Harbour, Herne Bay is only a short distance from Auckland’s CBD.

Houses for sale in Herne Bay, Auckland, range from modern homes to huge family heritage villas as well as flats for the singles. Herne Bay is split into two markets (northern slopes and southern slopes). The northern slopes are more exclusive but more diverse, many with sea views. This part of Herne Bay, Auckland is lined with small beaches with wide yet quiet streets. Because of the varied nature of the homes on the northern slopes, prices can vary from $850,000 to $15 million.

The southern slopes, which some people searching for houses for sale in Herne Bay, Auckland, often assume is part of Ponsonby. It’s where you will find street after tree-dotted street of untouched bay villas. These homes are generally smaller, a little less sunny and more uniform by design. This is the busier side of Herne Bay but homes in this area are still hugely sort after. Prices range from $700,000 to over 1.5 million.

For most of the homes in Herne Bay, Auckland, it is a mere stroll to Jervois Road, the main strip. Jervois Road is over flowing with cafes, delis and restaurants. There is also a variety of shops from fashion boutiques to gift and home-ware stores. Providing a social and friendly atmosphere for the locals.

Popular Ponsonby Road is also a short walk away. Ponsonby is known for shopping with a designer edge, as well as its many cafes and restaurants.

Many seek houses for sale in Herne Bay, Auckland because there are a number of preferred schools located in this area. Other amenities that the children love include the outdoor Point Erin pools and playgrounds on Salisbury St and at Cox’s Bay Park.

With the Westhaven Marina and Victoria Park close by, The Racquettes Club and West End Tennis club, there is plenty to keep you occupied in the evenings and weekends for those living in Herne Bay, Auckland.

Access to the Northern Motorway and the North Shore is close by, making commuting easy for those who work outside of the CBD and for extra convenience, there are frequent buses run along Jervois Road to the city.

It is definitely worth looking at a house for sale in Herne Bay, Auckland!

Estimated cost of construction in kenya-flats

ESTIMATED COST OF CONSTRUCTION IN KENYA-FLATS.

To get the estimated cost of construction for flats in Kenya, we will first need to identify the target market.

The target market is divided into 3 classes

  1. High income earners
  2.  Middle income earners
  3.  Low income earners.

High income earners:

Projects in this range are located in areas such as Hurlingham, Kileleshwa    e.t.c

The land location must be in a very prime area, near a tarmac road and in close proximity to CBD.

Construction cost is estimated at a minimum of KES 35,000 per square meter.

The house size is mainly 2 ,3 and 4 bedroomed, with a minimum size of 100 m2.

The two bedroomed unit will cost approximately KES 3.5m to construct.

Middle income earners:

Projects targeting this range are located in areas such as Umoja, Kitengela, Ngong, Kikuyu, Ruiru. Generally, the areas are located around 25 to 40 km from CBD and are in close proximity to tarmac roads.

The house size is mainly 1 and 2 bedroomed with a floor plinth area of approximately 35m2 for the 1 bedroomed and 60m2 for the 2 bedroomed.

The average construction cost per square meter for this type is KES 25,000.

The 2 bedroomed unit will cost approximately KES 1.5m to construct.

Low Income earners:

Projects targeting this category of people are located in Kayole, Ruai, and in most towns at a distance of over 1 km from the main tarmac road.

The house type is mainly single and double rooms, self contained or sharing a communal bathroom facility.

The construction cost is approximately KES 20,000 per square meter.

A double room of 25 m2 will cost KES 500,000 to construct.

CONSTRUCTION COST ESTIMATES BREAKDOWN

The construction cost estimates include labor, materials and professional fees.

The actual cost of construction is derived from the actual agreement that the land owner has with a building contractor. This amount varies from contractor to contractor depending on several factors.

PROFESSIONAL SERVICES.

Professional fees are constant and are set by the Kenyan Laws.

Chapter 525 of the laws of Kenya guide Architectural and Quantity Surveying Services.

Chapter 530 of the Laws of Kenya guide Structural, Civil, Mechanical and Electrical services.

Architectural fees are charged at 6% of the total cost of construction.

Quantity Surveying fees are at 3% of the total cost of construction.

Engineering fees vary between 1.5%  to 3% depending on the complexity of involvement.

EXAMPLE

6 units on 0.5 acre plot in Kiambaa, Kiambu county.

The best target for this region is the Middle income earning class.

Therefore, the 6 units will cost 6 units x 60m2 x KES 25,000=KES 9,000,000.00.

The Architectural fees for full service from design until construction supervision to completion will be 6% x KES 9,000,000=KES 540,000.

Architect Francis Gichuhi Kamau.

+254721410684

www.a4architect.com

info@a4architect.com

How to See Sydney on the Parramatta River Cat

From Parramatta to Circular Quay, there is a really large river called the Parramatta River. Along that river operates the River Cat, a ferry that runs between Parramatta and Circular Quay.

The most common way to get from Parramatta to Circular Quay is by train. The train is faster, and much more regular than the River Cat, but in the end of the day it is a train.

I had some time on my hands, so I was not in any rush to get to Circular Quay and so I thought why not take the River Cat? So I wandered down to the ferry terminal and of course the first drawback is the timetable.

The River Cat leaves about every hour on the hour, as opposed to the train which runs between 3 and 5 per hour. But I had some time on my hands and I was not too far away from when the River Cat was going. So I waited around and jumped on it.

It is fairly inexpensive; it cost me 7 dollar 70 for the trip, which is fairly standard and not too expensive at all. So I waited around, I got on this River Cat, the first thing that I was shocked by is it is quite small.

It was a very personal experience; there was two guys working on the River Cat. They pull up at the ferry, throw the drawbridge across and on you go. And then you do not even pay until the River Cat takes off then they come around and collect your money for your tickets at that point.

I got on around at 5 o’clock, which is winter at the moment in Australia, so it gets dark quite early, so it was dark when I got on it. The entire trip takes just over an hour, you can do it by train around 35 to 40 minutes depending on the train.

There are some pretty interesting sights to see along the way; around 6 or 7 stops between Parramatta which is one end of the run and Circular Quay which is where it terminates.

The stops are all really little wharfs, they are little riverside suburbs where it pulls over, ropes up, puts the drawbridge out and 1 or 2 people would get on and off, very small, pretty quiet actually and some quiet little pleasant suburbs as well over there.

So you can take in those little wharfs and you have these people that get this little River Cat to and from work everyday. You can also see some riverside suburbs along the river, got its bushes and weeds on both sides, so you cannot really take it in too much, but during the breaks there is a lot of parkland, a lot of quiet pretty suburbs as well.

Definitely the highlight of that is the arrival at Circular Quay. You enter Circular Quay from the front of Sydney Harbour, from the mouth of the Parramatta River, swing underneath the Harbour Bridge, veer straight for the Opera House and take a right into Circular Quay, near the CBD. It is really spectacular.

Sydney Harbour is one of those icons, there is the Harbour Bridge and the Opera House, but really the views do not get any better than going underneath it on the River Cat and then just having it there straight in front of you when you are in that River Cat.

So that is the Parramatta River Cat, obviously if you are in Parramatta and in a hurry, the River Cat is probably not the method of transport for you. It is a little slower and it is not so regular, but if you are not in a rush, it is definitely a far more scenic and pretty way to make that trip.

Mnd / Als – Ayurveda Research and Treatment Center in India

MOTOR NEURONE DISEASE (MND) is the name given to a group of related diseases affecting the motor neurones in the brain and spinal cord. Motor neurones are those nerve cells that control muscles, and their degeneration leads to weakness and wasting of muscles, causing increasing loss of mobility in the limbs, and difficulties with speech, swallowing and breathing.

The disease course is generally aggressive, with 50% of patients surviving less than 3 years after the diagnosis. Approximately 20% of patients can survive for 5-10 years but the rate of progression varies greatly from one person to another.

There are different types of MND, each affecting people in different ways.

1. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS): presents with a combination of upper motor neuron and lower motor neuron signs in the limbs. 2. Progressive bulbar palsy (PBP): presents with speech and swallowing difficulties. As the disease progresses, limb and cognitive features develop.

3. Progressive muscular atrophy (PMA): less common than other forms of MND that presents with only upper motor neuron involvement.

4. Primary lateral sclerosis (PLS): presents with only lower motor neuron signs and is a rare neuromuscular disease characterized by progressive muscle weakness in the voluntary muscles.

5. Pseudobulbar palsy: is bilateral impairment of the function of the lower cranial nerves 9, 10, 11 and 12 which control the muscles of eating, swallowing and talking.

‘CHARAKA-THE SPECIALITY AYURVEDA’ Institute of Panchakarma & Research, a traditional health care center, came into existence by a group of committed, dedicated and experienced professionals in the field of Ayurveda. CHARAKA is gaining a wide popularity as one of the best among the available Ayurvedic treatment centers in India.

CHARAKA pays top priority to Ayurveda research as it aids the metamorphosis of ancient Ayurveda wisdom for the benefit of the present humanity.

CHARAKA is the 1st & the only research Institute in India which is working on MND. It is completely dedicated for its research since last more than 5 years. It also has formulated and tried various new formulations and therapies, which are found very effective for MND.

In Ayurveda, health is defined as the state where physical body, senses, and psyche are in original or natural state with respect to body and function.

Although there is no precise equivalent for MND in Ayurveda, MND can be considered as ‘VATA‘ predominant disease. Vata is considered as a chief factor for the physiological maintenance of the body.
Vata biofactor is responsible for functions of the central, autonomic, and peripheral nervous systems. Vata controls the respiratory, blood, lymphatic, excretory, and reproductive systems, as well as all types of movements. It is also responsible for the cognitive and neocognitive function of the brain and secretion of various chemical neurotransmitters and hormones. This description ofVata resembles the functions of central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems.

The Vata diseases as described in Ayurvedic classics include a wide range of neurological morbidities, including inflammatory, degenerative, obstructive, and functional. Factors provoking Vata result in the instantaneous manifestation of diseases, which can even prove to be fatal.

Most of the signs & symptoms of MND like fasciculations, cramps, wasting, weakness, spasticity, bulbar symptom etc. match that of the classical signs & symptoms of Vata derangement described in Ayurveda. So the line of treatment in Ayurveda mainly focuses on the pacification Vata and bringing back the equilibrium between all the three Doshas (Vata, Pitta & Kapha).

CHARAKA offers a very effective treatment methodology based on the classical texts of Ayurveda. The treatment comprises of Detoxification and Rejuvenation through Panchakarma therapies, administration of researched internal medication.

***IMPORTANT ISSUE TO BE NOTED AND UNDERSTOOD BY ALL MND PATIENTS AND THEIR ATTENDENTS***

EARLY DIAGNOSED & TREATED CASES RESPOND TO THE MAXIMUM AND RATE OF SUCCESS WILL DECREASE WITH CHRONICITY OF THE DISEASE.

 

For further info log on to: http://www.charaka.org/motor-neurone-disease.html

Cannabis Explained

Cannabis sativa L. is the scientific name given to the cannabis or hemp plant in 1753 by the Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus. Since then, three main types have been identified:

Cannabis Sativa (Linnaéus 1753) or C. sativa L.
Cannabis Indica (Lamarck 1785) or C. indica Lam.
Cannabis Ruderalis (Janischevsky 1924) or C. ruderalis J.

Sativa, Indica and Ruderalis each have distinctive characteristics.

Sativa

Probably the most common form of Cannabis worldwide and also the type with the most applications. As a botanical name, sativa simply means ‘sown’ and is applied to the cultivated or common form of many agricultural crops.

A typical Sativa is a tall plant, generally a lighter shade of green than the other types. Its leaves are made up of long, narrow blades. Female flowers are longer and more ‘feathery’ in appearance than those of an Indica.

In general, the foliage of a Sativa is sparser than that of the other varieties Sativas grow taller than the other types, gaining height all through their growing and flowering phases. This is due to the equatorial origin of Sativas. In the tropical regions the length of day does not change very much between seasons, so Sativas are adapted to accomplish both their growing and flowering in a fairly uniform photoperiod.

The female flowers of Sativa strains usually grow along the length of the stem and branches, instead of forming in clusters around the internodes, as with the other types. This flower formation is due to the Sativa tendency to grow and flower simultaneously. As a result, female Sativa flowers are usually less dense and weigh less than Indica flowers.

A pure Sativa often requires a combined grow/flower period of around six months to ripen completely. For this reason there is no such thing as a pure indoor Sativa strain. All Sativa strains that are viable for indoor growing have been hybridised with Indica strains to make them more compact and faster to flower.

Nearly all cannabis grown for industrial purposes is Sativa. As the tallest variety it produces the longest fibres and therefore has the widest range of industrial uses.

Indica

Indica varieties are generally agreed to have originated on the Asian subcontinent or possibly Afghanistan. Lamarck, the first European botanist to classify this type, received his samples from India and thus dubbed the plant ‘Indica’ in recognition of that fact.

A typical Indica is a much more compact, thick-stemmed plant, usually attaining a height of less than two metres. It is a darker shade of green, some examples appearing to have almost blue or green-black foliage. Its leaves are comprised of short, wide blades. An Indica tends to produce more side-branches and denser foliage than a Sativa, resulting in a wider, bushier plant. Female Indica flowers form in thick clusters around the internodes of the plant and usually weigh more than Sativa flowers of similar size.

The life cycle of an Indica is divided into two distinct photoperiods – growing and flowering. Growing occurs when the plant is in an environment of long days and short nights. Here, the plant devotes its energy to increasing in size. As days become shorter and nights longer, the plant receives the signal that winter is approaching and flowering is triggered. Here, upward and outward growth slows or stops as the plant devotes its energy to growing reproductive parts.

An Indica requires both a growing and flowering period in order to reach its full size.

Many Indicas are a rich source of the cannabinoids THC, CBD and CBN. While a Sativa may possess a higher proportion of THC relative to its other cannabinoids, an Indica will often contain significant levels of all three. When ingested, Indicas tend to produce more bodily effects than Sativas – effects such as enhancement of physical sensations, relaxation, dry mouth, red eyes. These Indica effects are often grouped together under the term ‘stoned’, as opposed to the ‘high’ imparted by Sativas. This is not to say that Indicas have no psychoactive effect, just that they also have noticeable effects on the body.

Indicas are cultivated almost exclusively for their medicinal and psychoactive properties. Lamarck, when classifying this type, commented that Indica’s “firm stem and thin bark make it incapable of furnishing similar fibres to the preceding species (C. sativa L.) of which so much use is made.”

Ruderalis

The name ‘ruderalis’ comes from the German ruderal, a term for weeds growing by the roadside or on other fallow land.

Cannabis ruderalis is an uncultivated strain native to Russia and central Europe and is adapted to the harsher environments found in these locations. Whether seen as a variation on the single cannabis species or as a distinct species in itself, Ruderalis varieties are most likely descended from Indica varieties which, in turn, are probably descended from Sativas.

The differences between these three in their growing and reproductive patterns can be linked to the vastly different climates and environments encountered by the original tropical phenotype C. sativa L. as it colonised further and further north of the equator after the last ice age.

The most notable characteristic of the Ruderalis strain is its capacity to flower (and therefore reproduce) according to an individual plant’s age, independent of the photoperiod in which it is growing.

Since nearly all flowering plants take their cue to reproduce from the climatic factors indicative of season, the ability to begin this process based on changes in the plant rather than in its environment is known as ‘auto-flowering’.

A Ruderalis will begin flowering when it achieves a certain stage of maturity – normally after about seven weeks of growth, when it reaches its fifth to seventh internode. Once a Ruderalis has begun flowering, it continues to do so until other environmental factors (most notably winter) cause the plant to die. The other varieties may expire naturally once their reproduction has been accomplished, or may return to vegetative growth if given a long photoperiod.

Ruderalis’ adaptation to short, cool summers can be seen in other areas. Ruderalis has the ability to complete its life cycle – from being a seed to producing seeds – in just 10 weeks. Its seeds detach easily and can survive more than one season in frozen ground – until conditions are favourable enough to allow growth. The seeds can also survive their shells being cracked open when walked on by humans or animals. For some Ruderalis strains, this occurrence may even aid the germination of seeds.

A typical Ruderalis plant is very short in height, often between 10cm and 50cm at full maturity. It displays little or no branching and has wide, fat-bladed leaves, similar to those of an Indica. Once flowering begins, Ruderalis will gain even less height than an Indica.

Wild Ruderalis strains are nearly always high in CBD and low in THC.

While pure Ruderalis strains have little value in terms of fibre, medicine or psychoactivity, their auto-flowering capability and their extremely fast maturation time are of great interest to cannabis breeders. Hybrids made from combining Indica and Ruderalis strains are currently proving to be some of the earliest-maturing outdoor plants available.