Medieval Castles – An Essay

Castles remind us of a time that was full of adventure and romance. Castles remind us of a time in history in which there was a lack of government and order. Although there was not mass confusion and anarchy, there was less order. Castles were the basis of feudalism. Castles can be seen as a manifestation of feudal society. Feudalism started with the rise of castles and ended with their end. The castle set the tone as the only homestead that nobility would live in during this time. Castles were influenced by and influenced many medieval cathedrals in Europe. Although castles served many purposes, their primary purpose was military. At that time, people were not protected by merely shutting and locking a regular wooden door. They needed the protection of castles and their knights. The lords and constables of castles needed serfs to work the land to make revenue in order to pay rent to the more important nobles. Given the following evidence, it is relatively obvious why castles and castle building played an instrumental role in the development of Western Europe.

Castles are unique to a time in history known as medieval times. The word medieval in our times is an insult to anything as is the word feudal. Through the haze and ruins, one can imagine dungeons, chivalrous knights, and mighty Lords who ruled the land and protected the common peasant from barbarians and other invaders. The rise of castles marked the rise of feudalism. This was all started by the crusades. The majority of the knights and nobles went to liberate the holy land from the Muslims. The Crusades influenced castle builders back in Europe. Ideas were gathered from Muslim and Byzantine fortifications. Because of the lack of protection in Europe, a castle’s strength needed to be increased because of the ever-present threat of a Muslim invasion. The end of Feudalism also marked the end of the middle ages and hence the end of the great castle era.

Castles integrated the combination of residence and fortress. The first castle dates back to King Sargon II of Khorsabad in ancient Egypt. He erected a grand palace for himself to protect him and his subjects. The first recorded references to castles was the Edict of Pistes by Charles the Bald, king of the West Franks. “We will and expressly command that whoever at this time has made castles and fortifications and enclosures without our out permission shall have them demolished by the First of August” (Brown Architecture of Castles 13). Other castle laws were the Norman Institutions handed down by William the Conqueror after he took over England. One law says that no one shall raise castles in Normandy without the Duke’s license.

An ideal castle site was one that had natural obstacles for defense such as steep hillsides and water. Castles that were built on rocks or islands were especially effective. An example of this is Bodiam in Sussex which was the home of Sir Edward Dalyngrigge in 1385. A moat offered good protection, but building on a lake or river offered better protection. The site should not be too remote. It should have water and building material readily available nearby. A site should have a good climate, good pasture, and ample fertile land. If a castle had all these things, it would increase its chances of surviving a siege.

A large majority of early castles followed the motte and bailey design. These designs utilized earth and timber. A motte and bailey design is a design where the keep is on a hill or motte behind the bailey which is the open area of the castle similar to a town square. A bridge usually connected the motte to the bailey. The motte was a great mound of earth or rock. Sometimes it was artificial, but the majority of the time it was authentic. At its base there was a deep trench that resembled a moat. This was used as defense. Surrounding the motte was a wall of timber. The motte also contained the keep which is where the lord of the manor and his family lived. The keep was the innermost part of the castle. It was the last defense against attack. The keep has also been referred to as the donjon. This is where the French got the word dungeon meaning the jail or place to hold prisoners. Surrounding the entire premises was a wooden fence that was at least ten feet in height. These wooden stakes were then implanted in the ground for support. The fence sometimes stood upon posts to allow men to get through. During a siege, the perimeter would be covered with wet animal skins to curb the threat of arson. Most motte and bailey castles were built before William the Conqueror’s conquest in 1066.

Walter the Archdeacon wrote a biography of John, bishop of Therouanne about 1130. In it he describes Merchem Castle near Dixmude: “There was, near the porch of the church, a fortress which we may call a castle… exceedingly high, built after the custom of that land by the lord of the town many years before. For it is the habit of the magnates and nobles of those parts… to raise a mound of earth as high as they can and surround it with a ditch as broad as possible. The top of this mound they completely enclose with a palisade of hewn logs bound close together like a wall, with towers set in its circuit so far as the site permits. In the middle of the space within the palisade they build a residence, or, dominating everything, keep” (Brown Architecture of Castles 21)

Castle designers saw a need for improvement because wood and earth were not strong and were not effective protection against fire. There was also a need for bigger, grander castles because noble visitors did not travel alone so a castle would have to have enough room for the occasional visitor and his or her group. The architects who designed castles were known as master masons. They saw that stone would be a more effective building material. Although it was cold and hard to work with, it provided the much needed protection against fire. These newer castles are called enclosure castles. Like motte and dailey designs, enclosures castles had a wall protecting the perimeter of the manor. However these castles were not built upon hills or mottes. The keep of the castle was incorporated into the wall surrounding the property. These castles still had a bailey. With this new style of castles came a new construction material. Stone became the only material to build one’s castle out of because it made castles much stronger against attack. The tower of London is an example of a masonry castle. The ideal stone for castles was the fine limestone of Caen in Normandy. This limestone was soft when first quarried, but gradually became hard as it was exposed to air. To insulate against the cold stone walls of castles, the women made tapestries for the walls. The tapestries almost always contained a story relating to the castle. One of the most famous tapestries is the Bayeux Tapestry. It depicts the Norman knights before Hastings in 1066. Since they were now using stone, castle builders were able to integrate defenses into the castles.

Castles needed to have defenses. They were not made impregnable. They were made so that it would take an enormous amount of artillery and money to take the castle. They were made so that it would take a large amount of time to take a castle. The castle of Newcastle at Tyne was far from impregnable in 1173, but it was strong enough to make an ill-prepared Scottish King William think twice about a siege: “Well sees the king of Scotland that he will never complete the conquest of Newcastle on Tyne without military engines” (Ibid 80). Some defenses used by castles were machiolations. Machiolations were projecting battlements to protect against arrows and other weapons. They were at the top of the wall surrounding the castle. Arrowslits or arrow loops were slits that were cut into stone to allow sharpshooters a place to shoot. They were angled so that the sharpshooter was protected from oncoming projectiles. Another defense used was Greek fire. This was an incendiary device that was used against wooden attack machines. The ingredients of Greek fire are a mystery. It is thought that it contained some of the following components: crude oil, refined oil, naphtha, pitch, resin, sulfur, quicklime, and bitumen. This deadly mixture was put on an arrow and then shot onto one of the attacking machines and it gave explosive results. Greek fire was probably developed in the seventh century by the Byzantines for naval warfare. Greek fire was a morale builder for the defenders during a siege. The Lord of Joinville described Greek fire as “This Greek fire was suck that seen from the front as it darted towards us it appeared as large as a vessel of verjuice, and the tail of the fire that streamed behind it was as long as the shaft of a great lance. The noise it made in coming was like that of a thunderbolt falling from the skies; it seemed like a dragon flying through the air. The light this huge, flaming mass shed all around it was so bright that you could see right through the camp as clearly as if it were day. Three times that night the enemy slung Greek fire at us from their petraries, and three times they shot it from their arbalestres a tour” (Ibid 88).

Weapons were used against castles during a siege included the trebuchet, mangonel, belfry, ballista, ram, and bore. The trebuchet was a big machine that flung artillery like a catapult. The mangonel was similar to the trebuchet but smaller and more maneuverable. Its strength was based on the tautness of the hemp, rope, or tightly twisted animal sinew. Artillery used by these weapons include rocks, fireballs, and dead animals to spread disease. The belfry was a mobile tower which was built higher than the castle walls in order to scale them during siege. The ballista was essentially a large crossbow that hurled rocks and other large boulders. The ram was a device that did what its name says. It was used to knock the portcullis or gate down. The bore was a device used by the attackers during a tactic known as mining. They mined from their camps to the castle walls. They would set up a support then start a fire to break down the castle walls. The defenders of the castle also used this tactic to counter the attackers siege. They would watch the moat to see the vibrations caused by the attackers shovels. Then they would start a counter mine. This was the most effective tactic used in a siege but it was the most dangerous. It was dark, had contaminated or little air and there was always a threat that the tunnel would cave in or be caved in by the castle’s garrison.

Castles were not just fortresses but also residences of the nobility. It is this balance of military and residential qualities which make a castle so different from other fortifications. Castles had all the best furnishings and colors. They had chapels because Europe was a Christian continent. They occasionally had more than one. On the castle property were things like gardens, parks, vineyards, dovecotes, fishponds, mills, and stables. Castle were not as primitive as we think them to be. They had some of the conveniences that we have today. They had a form of a toilet. It was a toilet made of stone. People who wished to use it had to bring some material to protect themselves from the cold stone. The waste would eventually drain to a river by way of an underground pool. These cesspits would often have to be cleaned out by dung farmers.

Not all castles were extravagant fortresses that housed kings and all his subjects. Many castles were just built for the lord, his family and a few servants. Other castles that were not well protected or had no threat of attack were called fortified manors. The design of a castle was taken very seriously by the lords. There is reference to Aubree, wife of the Count of Bayeux, executing on the spot, Lanfred, her master mason after he completed her castle. She did this because she was so pleased with it that she didn’t want him to build one like it for anyone else.

Castles were the basis of feudalism. They controlled the land and all within it. A castle was a lord’s response to a mounted cavalry charge. Castles were effective centers of military power and territorial lordship whether or not the king or prince was there. Castles are an important part to history. They are phenomenal structures that still influence modern houses today.

Significance of Petrochemical Industry and Its Products

The process of refining crude oil leads to the production of a number of by products which are classified as petroleum products. These products are present in our daily trivial things to the most significant things available. The uses of these products are so significant that it is simply impossible to live life without it.

Some of the most common products which contain these by products include paints, thinners, dry cleaning chemicals, inks, insecticides, charcoal lighters, construction chemicals and so forth. With an endless list it is quite impossible to categorize all the items.

Different Petrochemical Products of Significance

These products have a wide variety of uses which are explained as below:

  • Wax: petrochemical products also includes wax as it is a by- product of petroleum and is widely used to make candles, various types of polishes, cartons and so forth.
  • Synthetic: this is another by- product that is of immense importance and which is obtained by refining petroleum. Synthetic is used as a raw material for manufacturing different types of garments.
  • Fertilizers: it is also used as fertilizers to protect crops from damage. Various kinds of pesticides and insecticides are manufactured using petrochemical products.
  • Preservatives: these products also act as preservatives to canned food. It is also used for producing different types of vitamins.
  • Soaps and detergents: it is a main ingredient in detergents and soaps.
  • Dyes: petrochemical products also include dyes which are used in ink pens. It is also included in cloth dyes.
  • Plastic commodities: majority of the plastic containers, plates and cups contain this by- product of crude oil. It is one of the widely and commonly used products as it is made of polyester.
  • Plasters: petrochemical products are being used for the manufacture of non stick pads, used extensively in the medical field.
  • Sports shoes: are also manufactured with the use of these by- products. The flexible rubber shoes are the results of the extensive use of synthetics which remain intact in all weathers.
  • Explosives: most of the explosives contain petroleum products.

Petrochemical products are used in varied forms in all fields. Ranging from common household items to complex applications, the uses are extensively wide and different.

The Indian petrochemical products have great demand and significance in the global markets. A huge share of products is being marketed to different parts of the world through the business portals. The top notch quality of the Indian products coupled with low price rate is one of the main reasons for its rising demand in the international markets.

Most of the Indian products such as polymers, wool, fibre, cotton, surfactants, acrylics and synthetics are supplied at discounted rates but with superior quality in the international markets. The demand for Indian products has skyrocketed to unfathomable heights due to these reasons.

The petrochemical markets in India are growing immensely due to many favourable factors. With the wide use of these products, it is one of the most promising industries in the world yielding huge revenue for the country.

Eco-Friendly Paper: A Primer

As companies around the world are revolutionizing the way they do business, going green has not only been in vogue, but an imperative part of protecting the planet. The green revolution has spurred most multinational organizations on the need of using eco-friendly products, paper included.

What is Eco-Friendly Paper?

Eco-friendly paper is made through the recycling of different pre-consumer and post-consumer materials that have been salvaged and reworked to produce a paper product. The driving methodology behind eco-paper is the use and maximization of pre-consumer material and pulp substitutes and the waste paper that would normally be thrown out, usually in landfills.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimates one ton of recycled paper saves 3.3 cubic yards of landfill space. In addition to saving space in landfills, green paper also reduces worldwide consumption of forests, also known as deforestation.

The final product is just as good as the material that comes out of a printing press, which would normally be made directly from newly cut tree pulp, and can be used for making books and much more. Eco-friendly paper is sturdy, protects the environment, and is used for a variety of tasks.

Types of Eco-Friendly Paper:

Curious Matter:

Created using recycled potato starch taken from the food industry, curious matter has a distinct rough surface, making it ideal for packaging, invitations, business cards and brochures. Without the invention of curious matter, the raw potato starch would normally be thrown away and left to disintegrate into the planet.

Gmund Bier:

Using genuine brewer’s spent grain, this paper is manufactured following the rich beer making process used for centuries in Germany. The unique earthy texture given to Gmund Bier paper by the spent grains is what makes this type product attractive and attention grabbing.


AVEO is a type of paper made from the waste products recycled from the sugar and textile industries. 90 percent of AVEO paper’s composition is sugar cane stalk. The other 10 percent is made from a combination of linen and hemp, which is used to increase the paper’s rigidity and folding strength.

Gmund Kaschmir:

Cotton is one of the key components used in this paper product type, which provides two different textures. One of them is velvety and the other provides a natural cotton texture. This type of recyclable paper is heavily consumed by commercial manufacturers and homeowners alike.

Esse Paper:

Esse paper is a wide ranging paper with both pearlized and traditional papers. With excellent print results, this type of eco-friendly paper is not just pliable, but extremely lightweight as well.

Eco-friendly paper is the new standard in the paper-works industry and is being chosen by driven, futuristic companies. If you are an entrepreneur looking to start in the paper business eco-friendly paper can be an earth friendly, and green option worth trying.

7 Irresistible Carp Bait Edges Refined For Winter Spring And All Year Round Fishing!

Revealed here are powerful easy homemade and readymade bait tricks and simple potent fishing edges that will catch you far more fish in winter and spring, when fishing is at its hardest at any time of year! Exploit these expert ready made and homemade bait secrets right now and reap big fish rewards surprisingly fast!

This point might appear simple but is overlooked by far too many anglers and that is that originally boilies were not used for carp fishing, but bait dough or paste was used. In fact there was a time when most of the biggest carp caught by the leading pioneering most famous anglers caught their carp not on boilies but on paste! When you use a boilie base mix mixed with eggs in cold water such baits easily last long enough in cold water with zero heating at all and such soluble baits most often work instantly!

The best time to test any new bait is in winter! If you simply test any new batch of baits on an easy fish carp water, the instant feedback will tell you immediately if you have just a bait that works or a real winner. You might be surprised to know that easy fish do not respond to all carp baits in the same ways. In fact in my own homemade bait testing using a commercial bait as a comparative control bait I can catch thus far up to 6 times as many carp using very small batches of homemade test baits as the commercial readymade bait has caught. This demonstrates a huge difference in success using alternative bait paradigms and the real bonus is that a genuine winter winner will work even better the rest of the year round!

In winter and spring one of the most effective ways to get bites is not to use boilies but instead to actually create baits made from broken down boilies, mixed with flavours and liquid foods and enhancers such as Talin, and powdered and liquid palatants and salty substances such as Belachan powder. It will definitely surprise you to see the difference yourself if you try this tactic and the power of it is that your bait really will work from the centre outwards right through, and not just from the surface like conventional egg sealed boilies! This method means you can exploit your favourite readymade boilie but make it far more functionally effective in cold dense water!

This might seem an odd trick but it is so well proven in my own fishing in the toughest of cold conditions that I must recommend this bait edge! Instead of using conventional stick mixes or crushed boilies in PVA webbing or solid bags, make your own homemade mixture using completely alternative materials and soak these in neat flavours and in liquid foods. For instance I soak crushed hemp seed in liquid Robin Red, and soak maggots in CC Moore Red Venom, and form your PVA bag or web mix from very loose materials such as molasses meal, enzyme treated liver, with CC Moore vanilla extract powder which is rich in oleoresins, salts and sugars all of which are absolutely ideal for cold water conditions!

CC Moore sweet fruit enhancer is a natural ester and essential oil based product which has been enhanced with sweeteners and appetite stimulators and I use it in all my baits alongside any other liquids. I used to make my own versions for years especially for cold water conditions and this is a readymade version which I have used with outstanding success in winter and indeed the heat of summer too. I use much higher levels in winter in summer than are recommended.

Bait substances work by altering things such as hydrogen concentration in the water, and carp are so sensitive to such differences in the water that you need to be exploiting this fact in making your baits far more easily detectable by carp. A very effective method to do this is as simple as increasing the level of flavour in your bait. For instance mixing butyric acid with Scopex flavour and doubling or trebling the recommended levels for your winter and spring baits and using these at different depths in the water column not just on the bottom! Test this kind of approach on easy waters in winter using your standard readymade bait as a control bait for comparison and you will see the difference in fish feedback believe me!

I have always found that breaking standard recommended bait substances rules by using real fish feedback testing is exceptionally beneficial with new homemade bait batches and adapted readymade bait because carp break our rules all the time and you can surprise them!

It really helps if you have methodically tested specific products and their components as a consultant as I have been doing for CC Moore and other companies over the years. I am only interested in one thing and that is the truth about what works best! Revealed in my unique readymade bait and homemade bait carp and catfish bait secrets ebooks is far more powerful information look up my unique website (Baitbigfish) and see my biography below for details of my ebooks deals right now!

By Tim Richardson.

Homemade Carp Boilies Catch More Fish Especially When You Exploit Potent Bioactive Sweeteners!

You know so many carp anglers try to achieve above average catches using readymade baits and fail. This is a great shame and yet is a massive problem, and I know the bait industry lets down anglers all over the place. All the hype cannot hide the fact that average anglers using readymade baits only ever achieve ordinary catches the vast majority of the time! It might seem strange but all the guys who I know who make their own homemade baits are the top rods on the waters they fish. One big reason is that they alone are exploiting their totally unique bait recipes with absolutely zero competition from any other anglers using exactly the same bait! This is an incredibly powerful advantage! Revealed here are some powerful bait recipe and sweetener secrets!

Certain carp receptors are particularly sensitive to sweet substances. Carp feel the glucose hit of broken aquatic plants for example, but they get few instant energy hits from many of their natural food items even though they catabolise a proportion of their most abundant protein-rich foods for energy. I’ve used glucose syrup for years; what makes more sense than exploiting the energy fuel that carbohydrates foods are broken down into internally?

Nutritionally food and bait is basically about vital energy. And without this for cellular respiration organisms die! Even at the microscopic single-cell bacterial level their survival and multiplication can be stopped completely when an aspect of energy supply or mechanism for energy release is halted; so sweeteners are addictive to fish and humans. I view both as incredibly organised networks of single-cells which are intrinsically self-intelligent organisms.

It makes sense that the roof of the mouths of carp are packed with concentrations of palatial receptors especially helping carp detect and instinctively decide to merely sample objects and solutions or to repeatedly consume them – or avoid them! Feedback to brain receptors signal the carps’ motor impulses to muscles etc to keep on feeding (or not.) It’s based on the vital need biological and energy value at that moment, or physiological impacts etc a substance detected has on an individual fish. Genetically individual fish and different strains are more sensitive to certain sweeteners; therefore exploit multiple sweeteners not merely Talin! (Avoid aspartame and Splenda – they’re toxic!)

Baits containing a mixture of sweeteners will likely be tested more than just once by an individual fish or by more than one fish on multiple occasions; leading to more fish hooked! Talin is a trade name for thaumatin B a protein sweetener from the African Katemfe Fruit (yes fruits contains proteins!) Talin improves bait palatability making them consumed more repetitively increasing your chances of more hook-ups. Interestingly it masks off and bitter flavours; many popular fishing flavours are bitter!

Talin appears to replicate a type of signaling nerves naturally do so I think this is one reason it is so potent. I’d term certain forms of betaine as sweeteners, not just true feeding triggers.

Glycerine (glycerol) is well proven beyond just as a flavour base. It’s a low glycaemic calorie source containing more calories than sugar with unlimited capacity to mix with water; absolutely ideal for dispersing bait substances in solution! Natural vanilla terpenes and synthetic sweet flavours are also sweeteners… I would term sweet and sweetened oils as addictive substances too including sweetened bulk oils, and also evaporated and condensed milks. Geranium and aniseed oils are sweetly proven as is deliberately sweetened garlic oil. Cinnamon oil is much over-looked for sweet baits!

Natural sugar sweeteners such as honey cause a blood sugar spike and instant energy hit in the body! This blood sugar spike creates a uric acid rise and glutamic acid dump in the blood stream which relaxes muscle tension in the body. This is an addictive effect of many drugs e.g. opiates, cocaine etc; it’s the addictive ‘relaxing rush’ effect of nicotine and the effect of beers processed in the body. Beer hops are the same family as Cannabacea (hemp and cannabis.) The bioactive components have similar effects after breakdown in the body (marijuana can be grafted to hops!)

Concentrated carrot and beetroot juices are naturally bioactive sweeteners. Lactose (milk sugar,) whey proteins, caseins, 5 Pints milk powder, Vitamealo etc have further internal effects on humans and carp quite apart from merely sweetness or taste and smell. Note that many substances such as milk are highly stimulatory in solution and when consumed, even if they cannot be fully digested naturally within the body! Many internal effects of sweeteners have zero to do with sweetness such as the immunity-building compounds in honey and its other various antioxidant protective substances science has yet to identify! See how many sweeteners are actually addictive or temporarily habit-forming even when used in low levels?

Bait secrets are not all about what is currently being used, but how substances work, how they are applied, what they are used with, how they impact internally on vital carp roles and processes, how they react with water, and how they enhance other bait substances in many ways when in solution and in contact with fish receptors etc.

Very many sweetening agents increase the action of water penetration into baits so promoting far more beneficial out-put of concentrated bait substances in solution; which carp most easily detect! This is a vital point especially when considering substances to include for cold water baits! The autumn is a great time get making new homemade baits and get away from under-performing readymade baits that have already got fish wary when in proximity to them; by definition this is any readymade bait that has hooked fish previously! Remember that the baits that anglers use directly programme and condition fish behaviours so that fish become very wary of baits that have hooked them.

By massive contrast when fish experience a bait that has never hooked them previously what do think the fish response is? Fish feed far more confidently on a totally new food source and in actual opposition to the HNV theory about baits I have had more big fish by fishing a totally new homemade bait on a water each session than by establishing the highest quality HNV baits. That has been my experience from 35 years of carp fishing. In the early year few anglers few HNV baits and so these made a huge difference but guess what, these days everyone and their dog are fishing HNV baits so their edge is vastly deteriorated see! In fact so many anglers struggle or achieve average results popular readymade HNV baits it is laughable!

My eBook readers out-fish readymade baits such as Mainline Cell boilies and others all over waters of the UK and abroad. The activity of enzymes in such baits is certainly not the ultimate answer for getting the most bites as these can actually limit fish reactions to the bait. Many readymade baits are claimed to be the ultimate bait yet the very next month or year another bait from that company is released and hyped up to replace the previous old ultimate bait.

See the truth that there is no ultimate bait because fish will always respond with fear of these ultimate baits through being hooked with readymade baits that the herd mindlessly use to attempt to get above average results! Trying to get above average results using readymade baits the average angler in the herd uses is just insane; you simply lose all competitive advantages completely!

Start thinking logically and sanely; start out with a completely new and totally unique homemade bait that you have made and your fish will have no reason at all to be wary of them. You keep all competitive advantages and all the secrets about your recipe bait modes of action, the ingredients, flavours used and much more; Think about it! Revealed in my unique readymade bait and homemade bait carp and catfish bait secrets ebooks is far more powerful information look up my unique website (Baitbigfish) and see my biography below for details of my ebooks deals right now!

By Tim Richardson.

Carp Bait Pellets And Their Stimulating Recipes And Most Effective Applications!

Pellets are amazingly successful carp baits and the diversity and potential uses of them are very exciting! Pellets range from pet and animal and fish feeds to proprietary carp pellets. They can differ greatly from boilies and from other baits such as particle and seed baits because their modes of action and soluble characteristics can be so uniquely powerful. Pellets can be formulated especially for carp and be composed of specific ingredients, additives, enhancers, colours, flavours, enhancers and so on to specifically improve numbers of bites when used in fishing for carp and improving readymade pellets and being able to make homemade pellets are a great competitive edges indeed!

Pellets may range for example from the following: halibut, trout, salmon, and corn steep liquor pellets etc. Salmon fry crumb is a very popular product applied in carp fishing too. Pellets such as these catch loads of carp just used as free baits in volumes and as hook baits. They all can be sourced in a range of sizes which is a great advantage. The carp bait industry has now such a diversity of pellets designed specifically for carp dietary requirements and this is important as these improve carp health and condition and immunity all year round and are very digestible so you can get more bites using them.

Pellets are usually cylinder shaped but they can be other shapes. Ellipse shaped carp pellets are especially attractive because when disturbed by feeding fish they can raise and flutter off the lake bed and stimulate fish more. Carp pellets made using a high percentage of very buoyant ingredients are excellent for warier fish as these can hover in the water at different depths and make it more difficult for carp to distinguish which baits are attached to a hook.

Pellets are most commonly based on a carbohydrate binder. This makes them more cost effective than many protein rich baits; however these often benefit from further enhancement. Cereal and grain based pellets are great carriers for flavours for instance which increase attraction and they can also be dyed bright colours using edible dyes to stimulate sight feeding more. Since these carbohydrate binders teamed with other ingredients such as fish meals are fairly soluble and break down relatively easily they can be exploited in many ways.

For instance you can make a mixture of many different pellets so you have baits that break down over different time spans so prolonging attraction and stimulatory impacts of soluble substances in your swim. Also pellets can have very different characteristics nutritionally and functionally and can be exploited in ground up powder form in endless ways. Many people have used ground up trout pellets for instance as a beginner base for boilie making. These work well and are nutritionally stimulating; however trout pellets are designed to put weight on farmed trout for profit and are not optimised for feed triggering.

Many anglers think that just using salmon or trout pellets dry straight from the bag is ideal and of course this format is very convenient and easy to use. However you are not going to get most bites possible by using a single form of pellet like this. In my experience pellets work best when you have a mixture of pellet types, shapes and other formats and characteristics that incite far more intensive and prolonged feeding.

For instance I might fish a PVA bag filled with trout pellets in spring using boilies on my rigs, and this catches plenty of fish, but this can be improved upon massively! I might used chopped up or shattered 21 millimeter halibut pellets in big PVA bags and use a homemade pellet-based boilie that is not made a round shape but is a rectangular or other angular shape to match the irregular shapes of the broken up free baits.

Carp can become wary of one type of pellet if used very frequently. Of course using mixtures of type of pellets both as loose feed and as part of your hook bait approach makes it difficult for fish to avoid your hook baits. Hemp pellets are very useful for forming a fine carpet of bait that forms a fine sediment layer on the bottom which easily clouds up and hangs in the water very attractively. The rate a pellet dissolves often depends upon the percentage of soluble components used, the texture of the pellets, the binders used, level of oils used and way pellets are extruded under pressure and heated to make them bind.

Adding a layer of oils to pellets can not only improve attraction and nutritional content by prolong break down so they dissolve more slowly. This is very useful in summer and warmer water temperatures above around 15 degrees Celsius for example when high carp metabolism requires more energy and when digestive enzymes can break down oils best in to energy and for nutrition etc.

You can make pellets break down faster by simply soaking them in water for a short period of time. One simple method of making paste is simply to soak pellets in water for anything from a few hours to 24 hours depending upon the pellets being used and then squeezing the wet pellets together. To do this best you need to test small batches and record your results and times but once refined this is a very good fast way to make basic pastes for many applications. This type of paste can be improved in a vast number of ways to achieve more bites including using a percentage of more protein-rich and betaine rich pellets alongside trout pellets for instance.

When actually fishing and camping on the bank of a lake, making soluble paste fast can be a challenge if time is vitally important. Scalding pellets using boiling water is just one method and of course the boiling water will make the binders in the pellets bind better. The ways you can experiment with pellets is endless. This is particularly so when you are adapting uses and applications of pellets for different conditions, times of year and temperatures and depths etc. For instance using a mixture of corn steep liquor pellets and hemp pellets in winter exploits the fact that these pellets do not have the kinds of oil contents that trout and salmon and halibut pellets often have.

These types of ‘salmonid’ pellets often contain a high level of oils because not only are they attractive and stimulate feeding, but they are there to supply the high energy needs of these fish. But fish such as trout, salmon and halibut have a higher energy requirement than carp. Carp certainly do not require high oil levels outside of optimum water temperatures from around 12 to 15 degrees Celsius plus. In fact using high oil pellets in low water conditions is detrimental as these congeal and lock up the soluble components of baits that are vital to be released to actually attract fish to the baits.

You need to remember that oily pellets are not suitable for low temperatures. They are simply not the best option because they will slow down fish metabolism as carp enzymes will struggle to break down such bulk oils. Not only does this slow down fish activity but of course this is not good because it can vastly reduce fish feeding and lower your chances of getting the most bites possible. For these kinds of reasons I do not use oily salmon, trout and halibut pellets in low water temperatures. Sure you might catch some fish but nowhere near as many as if you have specifically chosen bait which is optimised for low water conditions.

Of course the premium grade winterized trout pellets etc which are lower protein, very low oil and optimised for digestion containing wheat germ and other factors to improve digestion are far more ideal for winter and spring fishing.

The number of carp pellets you can use in low temperatures and all year round is simply staggering. When pellets have been made specifically for carp dietary requirements they tend not to be very oily at all reflecting the fact that carp metabolism is not as high as that of most sea fish and trout and salmon for example.

Many carp pellets are designed to deliver optimum nutritional levels in digestible forms. Salmon, trout and halibut pellets often contain a level of predigested or enzyme-treated fish proteins in the fish meals used and this reflects that these fish have a higher requirement for protein in the diet than that of carp. Of course predigested and enzyme-treated additives are beneficial because of their rich amino acid profiles that easily become solution, so delivering a stimulatory concentration of free amino acids into the water so triggering fish feeding. Carp pellets have this kind of effect and impacts but these can differ in the degree of impacts they have on fish senses and the degree of digestibility and nutritional profiles they offer.

Some carp pellets are claimed to be bloodworm pellets for instance and of course the stimulatory profile of bloodworm is very well proven in carp fishing. But some carp pellets are simply cheap carbohydrate or fish type pellets soaked or coated in a layer of liquid blood worm. You need to beware that you get what you pay for and the best pellets are actually composed of the real protein-rich substance right through the bait. For instance the CC Moore bloodworm pellets are composed of a high percentage of real bloodworm for maximum feed-triggering impacts!

Pellets are very useful as free baits on their own, or used in ground bait mixtures for instance. You can mix them up, break them up use them alone or with particle baits such as seeds, beans, pulses, grains and cereals etc. you can use very fine pellets that dissolve very fast in an hour teamed with pellets that may take 4 hour or much longer. The choice depends upon the impacts you want to deliver to your fish and the applications you are using.

In summer pellets break down fastest so why not choose them specifically and use them with this effect in mind for maximum impacts on fish senses!

If you want a layer of fine bait on the bottom then fast dissolving pellets are great. If you want to spod baits out that dissolve fast and cloud the water then choose very soluble and fine pellets suitable for this effect. If you want fish to feed for very prolonged periods and keep them in a swim but not satisfied choose pellets that are going to break down but release attractors into the water and into bottom sediment on the lake bed to keep fish rooting around for prolonged periods.

Hemp pellets and more buoyant pellets such as CC Moore Milkimin pellets are great. Some of their pellets contain substances which have a cumulative impact on fish feeding so that the more that is repeatedly consumed encourages even more repetitive feeding. The betaine HNV and Cantax Red type pellets are just a couple of great examples.

Pellets can be treated in a vast array of ways to improve feed-triggering effects and to boost solubility and intensity of impacts upon carp receptors and internally on many levels. Many anglers overlook using essential oils and additional flavours with dry pellets as well as additional bulk oils and liquid foods. When treating pellets with liquids heating the liquids helps their penetration into the baits. Pellets can be treated with any powder you want for any specific effect. For instance coating pellets in chilli powder, fish meals, or milk powders is just a starting point to improve impacts in the water.

I hope you see how versatile pellets really are. Here I have just offered a few tips to possibilities and uses and effects. The most effect way to use pellets is to buy the very best quality you can and experiment using these in as many different ways as you can – and actually write down what you do, the levels of any liquids or additives and the methods that you use and the catch results you achieve.

This will give you the ‘bigger picture’ as fast as possible and give you the greatest appreciation and understanding of how best to exploit pellets for maximum fishing results! If in any doubt just remember that your confidence comes from actual feedback from your fish; your fish will soon tell you which pellets, methods and applications of uses and preparations are most effective.

Using pellets as carp bait is no random chance exercise but simply all about methodically experimenting what you do and use and recording your catch results so you can constantly refine and better what you are doing and get better and better results! I have found over the decades that this is how true confidence is achieved with all carp baits! Revealed in my unique readymade bait and homemade bait carp and catfish bait secrets ebooks is far more powerful information look up my unique website (Baitbigfish) and see my biography below for details of my ebooks deals right now!

By Tim Richardson.

The Top 5 Harmful Substances Found in Your Food

If you need to enhance the flavour of food using artificial chemicals rather than herbs and spices, there is something seriously wrong about that and it begs to wonder why you would want to put such things into their bodies.

Of course, there are more than five harmful substances that are found in foods but I wanted to concentrate on these five because they are the most common.

In no particular order, my top five are:


Out of all the substances, for me personally, this must be the worse. This is not to say that some (additives)) are better than others, but there really is no need for this in food, there really isn’t.

The process of hydrogenation is to heat up liquid oil to high temperatures so it becomes a solid fat. Manufacturers claim this enhances the taste and ‘mouth feel’ of the foods they produce as well as extend shelf life. This very process changes the chemical structure of the oil and turns it into a ‘trans fat’.

I recall reading a newspaper article a while back where a university professor said that there are no health benefits to hydrogenated oils. In fact, he could not even measure how dangerous they would be to the human body so we are better off avoiding them all together.

Indeed, hydrogenated oils have no health benefits whatsoever. It is no better than eating plastic. Your body cannot process plastic so how it is supposed to process hybridized oil is anyone’s guess.

A few years ago, one high street chain made the decision to omit hydrogenated oils from all their own brand label foods. I was very pleased when I heard this and I wish other supermarkets would follow suit.

The main foods to look out for are: burgers, pizzas, fast foods, powdered soup and sauce mixes, cakes, pastries, desserts, cookies, some breakfast cereals, crisps (chips), chips (fries), non-dairy alternatives (cream etc.) and many non organic processed ready meals.

Fast food joints that sell fried food are best avoided because you have no idea how often they change their oil. The more the oil is re-heated and re-used, the more oxidised it gets – basically, more and more free radicals are created. Free radicals is like rust in the body and if you do not consume anti-oxidants (found in fresh whole foods particularly fruits and vegetables) you could be setting yourself up for some serious health problems in the future.


What surprises me about white sugar is that it is found in foods you would not expect it to be in. I have lost count the amount of times I have been shopping, picked up a product, looked and the label only to find sugar as one of the ingredients.

A few years back, one of my favourite snacks was oatcakes. When out shopping, I wanted to buy my usual pack of oatcakes but they were out of stock, so I looked at the supermarkets own label alternative. I could not believe it when I saw sugar as the third (or forth) ingredient. I thought why? Why was it necessary to add sugar to a product when it clearly was not needed? Answer? It is a cheap bulking agent and adds to the taste (supposedly). This is why supermarkets can boast about their produce being cheaper – they add cheaper ingredients and less of the real stuff.

Most mornings, I see kids going to school gorging themselves on sweets (candy), chocolate, cans of fizzy pop, and packets of crisps. What happened to a decent breakfast? These kids must be a nightmare by the time they get to school.

Consuming high amounts of sugar in any form not only depletes minerals in the body (especially) calcium but also causes blood sugar problems. When too much sugar is consumed, calcium is extracted from the skeletal bones to buffer the acidic effects of too much sugar circulating in the blood. This can lead to thinning of the bones, thus leading to osteoporosis.

Blood sugar problems are not the same as diabetes, but if it is not regulated, this is exactly what it can lead to. Constant blood sugar disruptions can cause a number of symptoms including sleepiness, lethargy, tiredness and cravings for sugary products.

White refined sugar can be found in just about every processed food you can think of, even in savoury products such as tinned (and/ or fresh) soups, processed sausages and pies, pizzas, burgers, bread and slimming products! Now you know why you have trouble managing your weight.

Now the market is crowed with decent alternatives such as agave and yacon, you can still get your sweet fix minus the side effects. You can also use fresh and dried fruit as sweeteners for making desserts and in baking.


One thing I will never understand is why manufactures spend money stripping all the nutrients away from whole grains, turning it into a pure white substance with no nutrients then fortifying their foods with inorganic vitamins and minerals. It’s baffling!

White flour, like white sugar is found in a countless array of foods – again all processed. I’ve lost count of the number of times clients have come to me and say they are trying to cut out wheat because they are having a hard time digesting it. This really does not surprise me considering it is found in just about everything you can think of, even salads, salad dressings and roast potatoes!

White wheat flour has become a staple in the Western world and people will consume it several times per day without even realising. They may think they have a varied diet but if you break it down into a list of ingredients, the main items on the list will be white flour, white sugar, fat and salt.

Like white sugar, white flour will deplete our body of nutrients. Why? Because it contains no nutrients your body then has to draw on its own reserves and if those reserves are in short supply, you are heading for trouble.

Your body need nutrients to function at an optimal level. If these nutrients are not there that is when we start having health problems. Over time these (health problems) become more chronic especially if we continue to eat the same suboptimal foods. You wouldn’t put diesel in your car if it takes unleaded petrol would you? Of course not! Your car would splutter to a halt in a very short period of time. But that is what you are doing to your body when you consume white flour products. The only difference is that your body will start showing signs of ill health.

Another thing you will notice about white flour is how sticky it is. Now just imagine that sticking to your insides, because that is what happens. Gluten is the substance responsible for this and the first three letters says it all – GLU add an E and we have glue!

Just imagine, for breakfast you kick start the day with toasted glue, add a good spread of hydrogenated fat and perhaps some sugar (jam)…hummm, nice! That will keep you fighting fit and performing at your peak won’t it?

There are plenty of alternatives out there so there it is possible to avoid foods that contain white refined flour. The best whole grains to go for are those that are stoned ground e.g. wholemeal, spelt, rye and kamut. Further, you can replace whole grains with non gluten alternatives such as millet, coconut, potato, rice and hemp flour. With whole grains, the nutrients stay intact. Alternatively, you can sprout most of these grains and eat them as they are or homogenise them, mix with herbs and spices and turn them into delicious nutrient dense crackers.


I have never been a big fan of fizzy drinks. My mum never bought any home when she went shopping so this translated over to me when I moved away and started doing my own shopping. Before I knew any better, the only time I consumed fizzy drinks was when I went out for a meal (I didn’t drink alcohol much) or some other special occasion, so it was no big deal to stop drinking it all together when I started studying nutrition.

Fizzy drinks are not only high in sugar (everyone knows that) but they are also high in phosphorus. Phosphorus is a substance that is very good at leaching calcium from bones because calcium is required to maintain the blood pH homeostasis. Phosphorus is also highly acidic and upsets the balance with potassium. This along with a high intake of dairy is what probably contributes to the highest levels of osteoporosis in the Western World.

Fizzy drinks again are empty calories. They contribute nothing to your health except extra calories. No wonder the rates of childhood obesity are reaching epidemic levels. Further, more and more children are being diagnosed with type two diabetes. Up until a few years ago, this was an adult onset health issue – not any more.


Let’s make this really simple – the word artificial says it all. If it isn’t natural, why put it in your body?

A 1970s study showed that aspartame caused brain tumours in rats and life long consumption increases the risk of cancer. Aspartame has also been shown as having a direct effect on brain chemistry. It can pass through the blood brain barrier and cause all sort of problems and has even been linked to food cravings. So if you are on a diet and consume ‘low fat’ foods that contain aspartame but you have cravings all the time, this perhaps could be the reason why.

Food colourings, emulsifiers, flavourings, thickeners and preservatives – what benefit do any of these have to your health? The only reason so many foods contain these unnecessary chemicals is for preservation, to extend shelf life and enhance taste but this can be easily done with herbs and spices. Most people ignore what they cannot understand and buy it anyway. Also, many may not question the extra additives in the food they buy because either they are unaware or if they are aware, they don’t care. If someone doesn’t care, it tells me they don’t think much of themselves…they don’t think they are worth it and that’s a shame.

If a substance is not from the earth, then it is man made and if it is man made, then it has no place in the food we eat.

The upshot of all this is that these substances do not contribute anything to your health because they are devoid of nutrients.

I am hoping for a world that eventually rejects what food manufacturers are producing and go back to how we used to live many years ago – producing our own food and relying on each other for support and resources.

When this will happen (if ever) is anyone’s guess, but I would like to think it will one day.

Irresistible Carp Pellets For Maximum Fishing Success!

You probably use pellet baits. But there is far more to using, adapting, boosting and even making pellets than most anglers ever realised! You can have far more success exploiting pellets when you know far more about them and what to do to vastly improve any pellet bait! Better still you can make your own homemade pellets and give your fish maximum reasons to feed using incredibly potent ingredients and especially powerful components; so read on now!

There was a time when the majority of carp anglers used trout pellets in one way or another and the choice of pellets was quite limited compared to today. Pellets were usually ground up and made into boilies and paste baits. Pellets were also used as free baits but most often simply introduced with no additional treatments or adaptations to make them far more effective at making fish feed.

The thing to think about is that pellets such as trout pellets, salmon pellets and halibut pellets are designed to put weight on farmed fish for maximum profit. They are not optimised to make fish feed most of all. They are optimised to ensure the most feed gets efficiently biologically converted so the farmer has healthy fast growing fish to profit most from. Feed triggering efficiency is not the main aim at all! This point is a massive one to remember every time you use any pellets not designed specifically for carp fishing! This point means that you must treat pellets to maximise their feed triggering impacts!

You might well assume that for instance that halibut pellets are ideal for carp however they are certainly not ideal for health and certainly not optimised for maximum numbers of bites. These pellets are designed for fish with a higher protein requirement and a higher energy requirement which additionally means that such sea fish and salmonids such as salmon and trout have a higher oil content than carp require as carp metabolism is lower over all that these other fish.

Halibut pellets are high oil and used in volumes by numbers of anglers all the time on lakes is bad new for carp as this imbalances their ability to generate energy and burn off stored fats and glycogen in and around the major organs, and affects blood triglycerides and cholesterol in the body detrimentally. High oil impacts produce vitamin E deficiency and as this is a very potent antioxidant this reduces the immune system and other roles and functions in carp.

Fatty liver is just one symptom of excessive salmonids and halibut pellet use by the herds of anglers using these in spod and PVA product mixes and as other forms of free baits. It is insane how many carp have enlarged livers that form a bulge in their side which so many anglers simply ignore not realising they are harming fish health by using such pellets! The impacts all add up and in fact slow down the fishing especially in the later autumn, the winter and spring because the excessive and ignorant use of pellets by the masses simply means so much oil is converted and stored for vital energy, that very little feeding is required outside of optimum water temperatures for carp feeding!

I used to be a fan of oily fish meal baits and oily pellets, but not any longer now I know what harm they do. In the early day of using halibut pellets before the herd jumped on the bandwagon I used three grades of them each having a different rate of breakdown do to different levels of components. This made for great fishing for a short time as I could exploit this staggered breakdown to make it very difficult for fish to detect which bait was the hook bait. In fact after much initial success it only took the fish in my local lake 5 weeks to begin to go off halibut pellets and start to pick them up with great caution, to the point where numbers of bites were aborted, and a noticeable drop in bigger fish was noticed compared to initial use.

I altered my approach by cutting the large pellets I was using into fragments, and shortening my hook links. Again this approach worked for a while, but the main problem was that the bait was not new any longer and the fish knew they were dangerous even though they at them.

There are so many options you can use to overcome fish caution using your own creativity. Of course you can use buoyant fake pellets on the rigs. You can disguise your hook and rig with pellet paste. You can make pellet boilies in alternative shapes, textures, with different flavours and colours and so on. There are many ready made pellet paste and pellet boilies on the market including pop up baits and neutral buoyancy type wafter baits that negate the weight of the hook. This is a very vital point to fool the warier fish.

Preferably you will take full advantage of the new generation of specifically designed carp pellets available today. But some are far better than others. Again you need to bear in mind that fish become wary of familiar products pretty quickly, and anyway there is no need to cut your chances of success when you can be the very first to introduce a new bait to a water. To guarantee this massive advantage making your own homemade pellets can be the most powerful edge as I know from experience.

You need to think about why pellets are very successful. Originally baits used in carp fishing were predominantly water soluble and this was why such baits worked so very well as their components could react with water and as solution impact upon fish receptors very effectively. Paste baits and small particle baits with a high water content and trout pellets were among the main baits used for carp fishing before the advent of readymade baits.

You can do almost all the things in pellet form as you can with boiled baits using the same massive range of ingredients and liquids but personally I prefer paste and pellet bait formats and avoid heated baits for a huge list of reasons! Boiled baits are a bait format that can be less effective than many other bait formats. This is because carp have associated danger with hard round or barrel shaped baits containing egg for decades and the conventional sizes shapes, surface textures, ingredients and liquids and general characteristics mean boilies are very easy to associate with danger from previously being hooked on them.

You can of course apply all bait theory and ingredients and additives and so on to pellets to make highly water soluble baits. But of course you can also make homemade baits that are not round, that have rough textures and completely alternative nutritional profiles and totally alternative ingredients and additives etc compared to well over 90 percent of ready made baits. Such unique homemade baits can be made in any alternative shape as they do not have to be made by machine rolling pressing or extruding or heating!

Making homemade pellets means you can tailor your recipes extremely precisely for cold winter temperatures and also for the hottest summer temperatures so you exploit the practical function and chemical and physiological aspects etc of carp in the bigger scheme of things all year round.

I have been an obsessive fan of homemade bait making for decades since I noticed that the new readymade baits from the bait companies could easily be out-fished. In fact the more ready made baits that are round or barrel shaped and smooth surfaced are used by the masses on a particular water, the easier such baits are to out-fish using ready made baits. The reason for this is very simply that you can systematically remove out of your own bait formats and bait recipes any commonly used substance, and you can create baits so different in function and characteristics that you have removed virtually all reasons for carp to be cautious of them. Of course carp are wary of baits they have been hooked on before and this means for me that ready made baits are only a compromise for anglers either without the time or the vision to utilise superior solutions.

Even if you are formulating a bait recipe and having it rolled by a bait company the fact is that you have just lost a major potential advantage over carp defensive instincts and that is that almost inevitably the surface, shape and density of the baits will in some way be almost certainly similar to most other ready made baits! Not many anglers appear to have figured the profound implications of using smooth and rounded familiar baits. Only when you have experienced using baits that have as little resemblance of ready made baits as possible and used them in testing directly against standard rolled ready made baits can you experience the drastic improvement in catches. The difference in catch rates can be simply unbelievable and I am not alone in experiencing this phenomenon, many of my eBook readers now know all about this too! Perhaps you can see why I am so passionate about making homemade baits now!

I expect you want some instant tips on pellet uses. I will not give anything really potent here. If you have been using pellets straight out of a bag, then I suggest that you might try getting some of the potently bioactive citrus oil on a high PC lecithin base type flavour from Phil at CW Baits on request. This example of a unique flavour was deliberately custom designed to harness the powerful biological potency of special citrus oils and components and is really something unique. If you have not done this yet I suggest that next time you use a pellet or a mixture of them, mix them with CC Moore Marine amino Compound mixed with their unique liquid Red Venom which is a great alternative when you wish to avoid the ever so over-used Robin red. Robin red is now becoming a danger signal as it has been used in ready made baits for decades. I have avoided using this additive for years and benefited big-time!

Just one example of an additive to really improve the quality of water soluble protein in your baits while avoiding milk and egg proteins is CC Moore hemp protein powder. Teamed with the pure hydrolysed krill extract liquid this company offers you can easily begin to adapt ready made baits of all formats or even just exploit these two products to make completely unique baits. Making a coarse pellet based on hemp powder, crushed and whole hemp and crushed nuts bound not with carbohydrate binders but with high protein binders only plus boosted concentration liquid foods is merely a functional idea for a starting point for a range of possible homemade baits.

My head is spinning with so many ideas I could offer that have caught me outstanding catches of big fish but you need to develop your own thought process to creatively invent your own unique fishing edges with bait and bait applications.

I could list 500 additives and liquids you could use in your alternative pellet mixes for any fishing purpose. The trick is in knowing which substances are specifically so potent that you get excited just thinking about using one of them or a unique combination of them, knowing which ratios and levels will produce maximum feed triggering impacts in the short and long term. You need to consider the fact that it is extremely prohibitive for bait manufacturers to use very high levels of quality protein and extremely potent extracts and other very costly substances in making their baits, because their main aim is to make a profit.

This is why it is so easy for you to beat ready made boilies and pellets by making the stimulatory levels of incredibly stimulating components in your homemade baits massively higher because your aim is to get as many bites as possible, and not to make a profit! So if your wish to make milk protein based pellets or corn steep liquor or enzyme treated liver or pure bloodworm extract pellets for example then you can literally make them as potent as you can with no restraints!

Part of this choice is how to improve the palatability of baits so fish repeatedly eat more and more of your bait the more they eat. Obviously this is a fantastically vital part of improving baits because this means maximum numbers of chances of fish picking up your hook baits again and again until they get hooked! These effects can be built into baits so they act in cumulatively habit-forming and even addictive ways. The term addictive is no joke because the fact is that teleost fish are the ancient ancestors of us and we share so many physiological similarities. When you take a much deeper look at the food groups and things such as the most biologically active components of flavours you soon discover substances when used in the most appropriate dosage, concentration and in unique combinations that can be harnessed to catch far more fish and I have spent years researching and testing this whole subject!

We get addicted to very many substances and the food industry exploits this to manipulate your food buying choices and patterns. Homemade bait making and improving ready made baits is just the same; you have power to make your baits as potently biologically active, as enzyme active, as palatable, and as internally stimulating and addictive as you desire.

You do not know what you are missing until you actually experience the incredible satisfaction of catching new personal best fish after new personal best fish on baits that you have very specially adapted or have actually designed and made yourself! It is your choice! I regard the best value bait as the kind of bait no fish has ever experienced before and which catches me the most big fish possible in as short a period of time as possible.

If your mentality is still merely the price of a deal on popular ready made baits then you are not truly getting it about true value for money and instead are missing the whole point about bait! I would always much prefer to fish exploiting just 1 kilogram of the most potent homemade baits a lake ever saw than with 50 kilograms of a popular ready made bait, even if the cost of my 1 kilogram was the same as the 50 kilograms of bait. I hope you get my point about potency here.

Using more bait is not a guarantee you will catch the fish you aim for particularly if others have hooked that fish on the same or a similar ready made bait you are using! However when you present fish with a totally new experience, well as they say, carp do not have hands with which to test baits do they? What do you think they are going to do with a uniquely potent uniquely alternative profile bait, and how would you feel if you were the only person who knew the recipe of such a bait when it catches the biggest fish in your lake? Revealed in my unique readymade bait and homemade bait carp and catfish bait secrets ebooks is far more powerful information look up my unique website (Baitbigfish) and see my biography below for details of my ebooks deals right now!

By Tim Richardson.

How To Make Homemade Carp Fishing Boilies For Winter To Defeat Readymade Baits – Part 1!

Improve your catches and think more like a sharper carper! This article offers expert tips to empower you to make superior homemade boilies which will catch big fish in winter and summer conditions! Designing homemade baits to beat readymade baits can be as simple or complex as you decide. Complex tips, bait secrets and some simpler guidance too are included here to get you catching more big fish this year; so read on now!

A bait as simple as bread paste obviously works and the old British record carp of 44 pounds was caught on this bait by Richard Walker. If you ask the question of why this bait actually attracted this fish and stimulated into feeding then you get a crucial list of properties, characteristics and factors of an all year round bait successful in all conditions! We can use all these things and more as a guide to designing better more successful, more functionally optimised boilies, pastes, stick and spod mixes, particle mixes, ground baits, pop up baits, pellets and so on!

The first point about bread is that it easily becomes solution in water so that carp can detect it using their multiple sensory systems. The second point is about the ingredients of bread and what these do to carp senses to stimulate them, both externally and internally when in solution. This subject is incredibly significant and is as thought provoking as how water reactive bread and its constituents are, and their impacts on fish senses, metabolism, digestion, energy release, mood altering capacities and much more besides!

Just to give you a hint as to what is coming up, I can make baits which last internally intact and incredibly functionally optimised and maximised for external and internal impacts on carp and water reactivity with zero heating, and this really means absolutely no cooking, heating, boiling or steaming, of any kind. These are truly optimised baits on a huge range of functional levels and vital nutritional and stimulatory factors!

These homemade baits need heating as they are designed to become exactly what is required in the water! No boiled, steamed, or heated bait that coagulates can be truly termed optimised for nutritional stimulation and such baits are very far from being optimised for functional performance. This is a huge reason why I do not use readymade baits; you can make homemade baits work better on a wide range of levels!

Based on the bread and bread paste example, perhaps think about bait from this starting point first. Bread is composed of a number of significantly soluble components which can easily be detected by carp in all water temperatures. The second point is that many of the constituents of bread contain components that carp are highly sensitive too and likely to be attracted towards and to actively feed on and repeatedly consume!

The bulk of wheat bread is based on wheat flour, and more particularly this form of wheat flour is termed as soft and is water soluble clouding up water even when mixed with cold water. This test is something for you to think about because if the baits you use do not easily have a significant impact on the water around then they will not be outstanding baits compared to what is actually possible to create and use!

Bread is an instant bait no matter which country it happens to be used in and in fact many of its constituents are used in many bait recipes around the world. The bulk of bread consists of soluble soft wheat flour. The commercial carp fishing bait industry uses a form of hard wheat, called durum wheat, which is commonly called semolina. This is a cheap binder and a supply of carbohydrate and energy to fish and makes baits functionally bind firmer and it is a relatively insoluble ingredient.

Semolina is a very cheap binder and a big part of how bait companies can make a large percentage of their profits and it is used in even the most advanced boilie recipes as valuable carbohydrate to assist carp to utilise protein rich ingredients and additives etc more completely, as well as adding other properties such as hardening and firming baits.

For over 30 years I have made homemade baits based on a variety of components and know that carbohydrate based boilies can be made to be very potent in many ways, but I would never now make a bait based on carbohydrates. Such baits often struggle in certain situations depending upon the water, but especially where baits with a richly stimulating nutritional profile are regularly introduced in volumes. To beat readymade baits it is far better to utilise various angles of attack within your bait design so you hit carp senses on multiple levels simultaneously so your baits are optimised for stimulation and maximised for functional potency in solution!

I do not suggest you start out making baits based on carbohydrates such as semolina or soft bread making wheat flour because this would not be the most optimised way at all, and certainly not the most maximised single angle or approach to designing homemade baits that you can expect to defeat the vast majority of more well designed readymade baits!

If I suggested to you that you make a paste using soft wheat flour as used in bread making (mixed with water only,) and compared this to a paste formed with semolina and water, then you will find that each ingredient has different functional properties. You probably cannot make a more simple bait than this, yet it will catch fish! Do not underestimate simple baits in their incredibly diverse forms!

Bread paste was used to balance the bread crust on the hook which Richard Walker used to catch his 44 pound record.

So if such a bait is so basic and simple how could this possibly catch the biggest carp caught in Britain? Part of the attraction and stimulation can be seen in recipes even today and include yeast, sugar, salt, oil with the bulk ingredient being soft soluble wheat flour. If you have had a varied fishing background then you will clearly recognize how fish are attracted to bread, including anything from roach and rudd, chub and dace, crucian carp and gold fish, koi carp, tench, bream, grass carp and of course Cyprinus carpio in the common, mirror and leather forms.

The basic need of fish is for vital energy. Fish require amino acids to sustain respiration and metabolism and also optimum digestive functioning and immunity and physiological balancing of cellular pressures and passage of amino acids, hormones, nutrients and waste products etc, and calories from bread is converted to sugar within the body of the fish for basic energy to fuel survival.

Fish and humans are hard wired to provide for vital energy for survival so this means that fish will readily feed on carbohydrates and sugars and oils of an amazing variety. Of course wheat flour does contain a low amount of amino acids so this can figure a little in the equation, but if I personally wish to supply water soluble feeding triggers and protein for nutrition I choose very specific ingredients and additives and extracts for this purpose for optimising my baits.

As you probably are well aware, the basic food of humans around the world is carbohydrate food. This is wheat and other such seeds and grains and even pulse and bean derived flours and meals etc in the western world, as well as parts of the Asia, the Americas and so on. Also other sources include maize, rice and many other far lesser known foods, including amaranth and even hemp.

I make this point because in some parts of the world indigenous peoples do not merely use conventional breads and flours. Some make bread using chick pea flour; some make bread or patties from other materials including whatever is available in the locality, maybe mountainous terrain or jungle or whatever thrives there in those conditions. This includes spirulina (blue green algae,) tiger nuts, soya beans and hemp among many others. Each forms of bread has its own stimulatory set of nutrients and bioactive factors etc and this is where the link with making carp baits really comes in!

We have the same basic forms of sensory systems in many ways as carp and literally carp as ancient teleost fish are a part of our ancient ancestor heritage. This is very interesting because many bait components we use very successfully are also much liked by humans. We happen to use water covered sensory receptor sites because we live in air and not in water any longer and our senses are massively less sensitive to substances mixed with air or water compared to many other creatures including carp and dogs for instance. The important point here is that we can leverage this acute sensitivity to our advantage in endless ways to catch many more fish!

Carp detect certain substances down to as little as a few parts in a billion in solution (mixed with water.) In my early days of carp fishing in the seventies I honed my skills by making homemade baits for small carp and crucian carp. The first baits I used were chopped worm, maggots, and of course I used white and brown breads in many ways. It was very obvious that if you mixed Marmite or honey or a chemical flavour with the bread then you could change catch results dramatically especially on days when conditions were not perfect.

I am talking about bread here to keep the principle simple which is that it is a substance containing minimal amounts of water soluble components to which carp are highly sensitive. Notice that both bread and Marmite contain salt. Of course I used sweetcorn too and like bread it is rich in easily digestible water soluble carbohydrates and also contains a percentage of protein, but the modern genotypes which are super sweet sweetcorn contain more sugars and really are truly enhanced by natural sugars stimulatory to carp.

To take advantage of the fact that carp are stimulated to sweetcorn you will find that mixing liquidised sweetcorn and bread to form a paste is an instant bait and presents both baits together in a unique form.

This idea is a very simple one but is the kind of creative innovation that will keep any homemade bait maker ahead of wary carp! It is in creative innovation, and the exploiting of the acute sensitivities of carp and knowledge of substances that trigger responses of carp, from initial gulping and filter feeding to intense repetitive consumption of bait that can be produced via your bait designs. Some bait designs exploit the fact that carp will test new objects and substances in their environment if not found to be a danger or a threat, and so massively over flavoured baits made with cheap carbohydrate ingredients have fooled many carp.

Richard Walker was a highly methodical, and extremely intelligent and innovative, creative angler. Bread is attractive to many species. Having read a chapter in a book from that time by Fred Taylor who was present at the capture of the record fish, he suggested that to catch carp you needed the following items: a strong rod and fixed spool real, a pair of rod rests, an audible bite indicator or foil or bread dough bobbin indicator, 10 pound line, a big sharp hook, a large landing net, and bread or boiled potato for bait. Carp were fished for using no weight on the line and the aim was to present as little resistance as possible to a wary feeding fish.

But what makes this interesting is that the bread offers soluble stimulation and attraction to the fish, as does the carbohydrate rich quite easily water soluble potato. eBook readers of mine have told me that in New Zealand potato flour, and potato starch are used as the bulk binders very successfully in carp baits there. This echoes my first special carp bait paste which included vanilla flavoured, sugar and milk powder enhanced custard powder which primarily was compose of maize starch.

I have made successful pastes that include bread of various kinds even today, and many modern types of bread made to be gluten free contain some very stimulating substances to exploit!

Wheat lectin, and wheat gluten intolerance and super sensitivity is a cause of many common diseases today and I gave up eating wheat bread about 6 years ago to avoid any possible further development of wheat gluten and wheat lectin intolerances and hyper sensitivities in future.

Fish are different to humans in that they have a varied diet including natural food items alongside carp baits and I am certain this is why carp diseases related to bad carp bait design are not as obvious as they could be. However the use of high oil pellets and oil glugging of boilies and use of very oily fish meals and high usage inclusions of bulk oils has definitely given many big fish liver problems and you can spot this by the bulges sticking out of the flanks of altogether far too many big carp today!

Many oils make baits almost useless in winter as they can literally become solid and lock up the soluble and digestible elements of your baits so choose wisely and use liquid lecithin alongside any lipids, oils, essential oils and other compounds etc that can be helpfully emulsified to make baits far more easily detected and digested!

Low oil use at perhaps a 5 percent inclusion is all that is required in very many carp bait recipes, depending on the oil and fat content of your various ingredients, especially the oily marine and fish ones for instance; so please do remember this when making your baits.

Fish health and future longevity is the responsibility of each and every angler. Of course by making health and natural balance orientated homemade baits, carp will have the health and vitality and energy to feed more, so you will catch far nicer fish more often now and in the future! Revealed in my unique readymade bait and homemade bait carp and catfish bait secrets ebooks is far more powerful information look up my unique website (Baitbigfish) and see my biography below for details of my ebooks deals right now!

By Tim Richardson.

Blueberry Feminised Seeds from Dutch Passion

Dutch Passion Seeds were among the oldest cannabis seeds bank which was established long back in 1987. The company’s reputation rests on the quality of its genetics and the reliability of its germination. The feminized seeds range of the company is most well known for its blue cannabis strains, such as the blueberry and the Blue Moonshine, and also for the White Widow, Passion #1, etc.

Dutch Passion was among the pioneers of the feminised cannabis seeds and their major breakthrough was in the advancement of the technology of seed breeding when they developed the feminized seeds. When the conditions are right, which mean that when the weather, temperature and other necessary conditions are perfect or on the verge of perfection, these feminised seeds only give rise to female plants. One needs to get to hold of selected clones to produce these. Under standard conditions of temperature and pressure, no male flowers are produced by these female clones. With the method, they also made a very significant discovery, that male flowers and pollens can be produced by cuttings. Special seeds are produced from the pollen so obtained. The company is one of the very companies that mention THC and CBD percentages of the strains that they produce in their catalogs.

Blueberry seeds produced by Dutch Passion are feminized cannabis seeds that produce a cannabis hybrid that that is highly dominant in Indica. These feminised seeds have won many a competition and is a high pedigree seed and is one of the firm favorites of those in the market. The original Blueberry is strain that mostly contains Indica (Its Indica content are nearly 80% with its Sativa content being only around 20%). The root of the seeds dates back to the later years of the 1970’s. Under optimum conditions, the plant is capable of generating a large amount of produce. The plant is very dense with a stout stature, and having red, blue and purple hues that concoct to form almost a lavender hue. The final product’s aroma is very fruity and tastes very much like blueberry (which is the reason for its name, along with the color).

The plant gives a high feeling that usually lasts for a very long time. One feels very relaxed, calm, composed and almost on the verge of a euphoric feeling. The size of the calyx varies from medium to large and the plant has an amazingly long shelf life. The plant is best suitable for growing indoors but has no problems whatsoever in growing outdoors as well and hence it is very unique in that respect. As said earlier, the type of the plant is mostly Indica, and is of medium or short stature. The THC level has been marked by the company at a very strong 20%. It takes around 8-10 weeks to flower, which is relatively on a higher level and yields around 500gms per m2 in a set of Sea of Green. The typical time for harvesting is during the 2nd and 3rd weeks of October.